Software testing is a very important component in the software development life cycle. It is a process through which we can ensure that our software meets its users’ expectations and works as expected. With so many organizations developing new applications, it has become very important for them to test their products before releasing them into the market. This post will discuss the top 50 common questions asked in interviews related to Software Testing.

The Top 50 Software Testing Interview Questions To Know In 2023

1. What are the main phases involved in Software Testing Life Cycle?

The Software Testing Life Cycle is a complete process where different types of testing should be performed at each phase to ensure that the product meets all requirements. The following are the various phases of the Software Testing Life Cycle:

  • Requirements Planning Phase
  • Analysis Phase
  • Design Phase
  • Implementation Phase (Coding/Programming)
  • Integration Phase
  • Verification & Validation Phase (V&V)

2. What are the different methods of testing?

Here are the different types of testing methods:

  • Acceptance Testing
  • Regression Testing
  • White Box Testing (also known as Structural or Glass Box)
  • Black Box Testing (also known as Functional or Behavioral)

3. What are the different levels of testing?

There are different levels of testing, namely:

  • Unit testing
  • Module testing
  • Integration Testing
  • System Testing

4. Explain the Bug Life Cycle or Defect life cycle.

The bug life cycle or defect life cycle is the Path a reported software bug goes through from its initial detection until it is no longer in need of attention. It can start with an internal or external user finding a bug and reporting it to the development team. Once the report has been received, it may be assigned to one or more developers for further investigation and resolution.

The important thing in this process is proper documentation of the steps taken by you while resolving bugs:

  • Bug reporting form (or any other way)
  • Steps followed in resolving the issue (including screenshots/videos etc.)

5. What is a test case?

A test case contains the steps to validate a particular software feature. It’s used by testers as a guide during testing activities and also by developers to know how they should build their code. Test cases are typically created before development begins or once requirements are finalized. Still, writing them early enough is important to save time on something that may change later in the process.

6. What is the difference b\w functional and non-functional testing?

A functional test is defined as one that measures the product’s ability to perform its intended function, such as playing a music file or checking account balance. A non-functional test measures the software’s performance in a given environment, such as under heavy load or with minimal memory.

7. What are Verification and Validation in Software Testing?

Verification and validation in software testing are two terms that you must know. Verification ensures that the application has met its requirements, and validation means testing whether or not it meets those requirements.

8. What is usability testing?

Usability testing focuses on how people interact with software. This can include testing the effectiveness of a user interface, analyzing how many clicks it takes to complete a task, and determining whether users can find what they need in the software without help.

9. What are the categories of defects?
  • Functional: A defect that prevents a program from doing what it is supposed to do. For example, an error in a calculator’s arithmetic functionality would be considered a functional defect.
  • Structural: A design or implementation flaw that makes it difficult or impossible to identify or isolate other defects in the system. For example, suppose a function call returns incorrect values regularly because its parameters must be validated correctly. In that case, this can be considered a structural defect (assuming no other obvious cause).
  • Cosmetic: An issue related only to how the software looks and feels. These include things like grammar errors in text fields and typos in buttons and messages displayed on the screen.
10 How is the acceptance plan prepared?

In the past, you might have only considered the requirements of a project and how they should be tested. But these days, we need more than that. The acceptance plan is a document that defines what constitutes “acceptance” for a project – it details how much testing will be required to meet all of the requirements and then some.

The acceptance plan is prepared based on the following:

  • Functional requirements
  • Business rules (e.g., business rules for pricing)
  • Technical design
11. What is covered, and what are the types of coverage techniques?

Coverage, also known as code coverage, evaluates a software program to determine whether it has been sufficiently tested. There are multiple ways to measure coverage, each with its benefits and drawbacks. The most common types of coverage include statement coverage (how often every statement was executed), branch coverage (how often every branch was executed), decision coverage (how often every decision was executed), and condition/decision/branch (C/D/B) coverage.

12. What are the benefits of Automation testing?

Automation testing is a way to reduce human errors, improve productivity and increase quality. It also helps to ensure that your tests are repeatable, reliable, and scalable.

Automated software testing can be used for regression testing, performance testing, security testing, and more.

13. Why is Selenium a preferred tool for testing?

Selenium is a free, open-source software testing framework for web applications. Selenium supports multiple programming languages, notably Java, C#, and Python. It’s also compatible with other test automation tools like JUnit and TestNG.

You can write tests in any language you want so long as it can run on the browser, making Selenium an excellent choice for programmers who don’t know JavaScript or HTML. In addition to being easy to start with, Selenium scripts are also portable—you can run them against different browsers and operating systems without having to rewrite them from scratch whenever you need to test something new.

14. What are the various components of Selenium?

A: Selenium has three different components. The first component is the Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment), an open-source tool that can record and playback tests. It provides an easy way to create test scripts in multiple programming languages, including Java, C#, Python, and Ruby.

The second component is WebDriver, a browser automation framework for testing web applications across various browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, or Internet Explorer. This library has been developed using Java by SeleniumHQ.

The third component consists of modules called bindings or extensions that are responsible for interacting with each browser directly through the underlying operating system’s API

15. What are the types of locators in Selenium?

Selenium locators are one of the most important concepts in Selenium, and you should know them before you appear for any software testing interview. Here is a list of the commonly used locators:

  • ID Locator
  • Class Name Locator
  • Tag Name Locator
  • Link Text Locator (You can use link text as an attribute value)
16. What is XPath?

XPath is a language used to select nodes from an XML document.

XPath is a language for identifying parts of an XML document, such as “all the paragraphs inside this div.” The browser engine interprets XPath expressions and uses them to find nodes in the DOM tree. It’s used in many different contexts, but here we’ll only use it for CSS selectors.

17. What is the difference b\w Absolute and Relative Paths?

An absolute Path is a complete path that starts from the root directory. For example, C:\Users\User1\Documents\MyFiles. Relative Path is the part of the file that starts with “..” to move up one directory level, and then the remaining path name is relative to that directory.

18. What are the exceptions in Selenium WebDriver?
  • The most common exception is Timeout. This exception occurs when the value of the timeout parameter is reached or passed.
  • The second type of exception is NoSuchElementException.
  • Then there is NoSuchWindowException, which takes place when you try to access a non-existing window object by its name.
  • The third type of exception is SecurityException, which takes place when the user does not have sufficient privileges to perform the requested operation. 
  • Finally, there is TypeErrorException, which occurs when you try to assign a value of the wrong data type to an object variable.
19. When should I use Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid helps to run tests in parallel. It is a tool that automates the process of launching and configuring multiple Selenium nodes (or browsers) on different machines to support test parallelization.

All modern web applications run in a distributed environment, such as the cloud or on several servers behind a load balancer. This can make it difficult to test your web application with only one browser instance fully. Selenium Grid allows you to use multiple browser instances for faster execution and better results when facing high-traffic or CPU-intensive website builds

20. How do I start the browser using WebDriver?

Sometimes you will have to launch the browser using WebDriver. This can be done by calling `WebDriver.start()`. It is important to note that starting the browser with `WebDriver` will not launch it in an automated way; it just starts it for testing purposes.

21. Should testing be done after the build and execution phases?

This question tests your knowledge of testing practices. Understanding that testing should always be done as early as possible in a project lifecycle would be best. A tester should start before everything is finished building and executing before starting to test.

22. What’s the relationship b\w environment reality and test phases?

A software testing engineer performs four main test phases: unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing. Each phase has different goals and requirements for each type of tester to meet for it to be deemed complete. A software tester must know what each one is to understand how they relate not only with one another but also with the development process itself.

23. A defect that could have been removed during the initial stage can be removed later. How does this affect the cost?

The cost of fixing a defect increases because it is more expensive to fix it later. Also, if the developer fixes this defect before he finishes his work, he can deliver the product on time and avoid any delay in delivery.

24. What are regression and confirmation testing?

Regression testing is executing a test case or test suite, then re-executing it after certain changes have been made to verify that the modification has not caused any errors in functionality or performance. Confirmation testing is the execution of test cases to confirm that programs perform as expected, without failures or other errors.

25. What is boundary value analysis?

The boundary value analysis is an important method in software testing, where we check the limits of input values and test them to validate the output. For example, if a function takes an integer as input, we can test it using negative and positive numbers to validate the outcome. It also helps us find logic or code errors during the development phase itself.

26. What is Random testing?

Random testing is a software testing method in which the tester chooses test cases randomly from a set of possible inputs or previously-used test cases. This can be done with or without replacement.

27. How can you arrive at an estimation for your project?

The best method to answer this question is to find out about the project’s scope first. Then, if you know the time frame and budget, break down the tasks into smaller chunks so that it’s easier to estimate how long each part will take. If there are no clear deadlines or objectives, ask questions until you understand what sort of information they want from you—and then answer those questions honestly!

28. Which test cases are written first?

This question tests your ability to write test cases. You should be able to describe the difference between a white box and a black box test case and explain why each one is used in specific situations.

29. Mention the basic components of the defect report format.
  • Title
  • Description
  • Priority
  • Assignee (who is responsible for fixing it)
30. Is Automation testing in agile methodology useful?

Yes, automation testing is very useful in the agile methodology. It helps to automate repetitive tasks and thus reduces the turnaround time. Automation testing also ensures that test cases are executed without any errors.

31. Which test cases can be?
  • Test cases which are regression tests
  • Test cases repeat the same thing for each build.
  • You can only automate your test scripts if you have enough test data.
  • If the system under test behaves in a way that can be predicted, it is possible to automate your tests.
32. On what basis can you map the success of Automation testing?
  • Based on the test cases and scripts you have written, you can map out the success or failure of automation testing.
  • You can also measure the time these scripts take and compare it with manual execution time. This will give an overview of how much time has been saved by automating certain manual tests.
  • In addition, if the automation test results are consistent with human tester results, then that means the automation is successful in producing similar outcomes as humans do their tests manually.
33. Explain Load Testing on websites.

Load Testing is a type of testing that determines the performance and scalability of an application or website under a heavy workload. It checks how well the application can handle high traffic loads and how many users can be supported. This helps determine whether your application can withstand sudden spikes in visitor numbers, how much traffic it can handle at any given time, and how quickly it responds under a heavy load.

34. What is the difference b\w Selenium and Sikuli?

Selenium is an automation tool for testing web applications, whereas Sikuli is for testing desktop applications. Selenium has a record and playback feature but can slow execution speed. It can also be used for mobile apps using Appium or similar frameworks.

Sikuli uses image recognition to interact with UI elements on the screen, and its advantage is that it’s faster than Selenium in execution speed.

35. How to click on a hyperlink using link text ()?

For example, if you have a hyperlink with the text “Click Here,” then the link text () will return “Click Here.”

If you have a hyperlink with the text “Visit Home Page” and open it up in your browser, then click on the link text () method of the window object in the console, it will return Visit Home Page.

36. What is TestNG?

TestNG is a testing framework from the Apache Software Foundation, and it’s used for unit testing, functional testing, and acceptance testing. You can test in Java, Groovy, or JUnit 5.

37. How to set a test case in TestNG?

A test case priority is an order in which test cases are executed. It can be used for different purposes and scenarios, such as:

  • To execute those test cases that are more critical first.
  • Execute the most important test cases first.
  • To execute certain tests first (e.g., smoke tests).
38. What is the difference b\w Selenium and QTP?

This question is frequently asked in software testing interviews. It’s very important to understand the difference between these two tools to answer this question correctly. Selenium is a web automation tool used for functional and non-functional testing. At the same time, QTP (QuickTest Professional) is an automation tool that can be used for unit testing.

39. How is Object Repository in Selenium created?

Object Repository in Selenium can be created by creating an internal object whose functions will help us build up our repository. The object Repository is where the test data required for testing the system are stored. It contains objects related to each other, which helps access quickly and easily.

40. How can you input text in the text box by using Selenium Webdriver?

To input text in a text box, we need to use one of the mentioned methods:

  • Alert method
  • SendKeys method
41. What input do we need from the end user to begin testing?

Adaptability is an important trait in any tester, as it allows you to learn quickly and make the most of your time working on a project. You should clearly understand what type of input you need from the user or stakeholders and how much time they can afford to devote without getting frustrated.

42. What is meant by the workbench concept?

The workbench concept is an important part of the test design technique. It describes the framework to create a test plan, which can be used to perform different types of testing.

Test workbenches help organize your tests and help you understand where to locate them or how you need to make modifications.

43. What is meant by Defect Cascading?

Defect cascading is the tendency for errors to propagate from high-level to low-level software components and finally to the user interface. It’s an important concept for software testers to understand because it helps them identify where defects can occur in their system and how testing strategies might be more effective.

44. Describe different strategies for rollout to end users. 

You can use a phased approach, where different groups receive their version of the software at different times. The idea behind this approach is that you can monitor how each group reacts to it and make any changes needed before the next group gets its version.

Another option is an all-at-once rollout, which means all users get access at once. This method has its advantages because you don’t have to worry about making adjustments for one group over another; however, it can also mean some users will try out issues or bugs that others may have already noticed or experience problems with stability due to the large number of people accessing the application at once

45. How can you find broken links on a page using Selenium WebDriver?

You can use the findElement() method to locate links on a page. For example, you can use the following code to locate all elements that have an href attribute and then check if it is broken or not:

driver.findElement(By.linkText(“Broken Link”)).click();

46. Which technique can be considered in the script “if there is neither frame id nor frame name”?

In this question, you are expected to know about the corner cases of the if statement. In this case, there is neither a frame id nor a name. In such a situation, the statement will be executed only when the condition evaluates to false or becomes true.

47. How to take screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?
  • You can use the screenshot command to take a screenshot of your web page.
  • To do this, you will have to run the following command:

“`java WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

driver.get(“https://www.example.com”);

driver.findElement(By.id(“user_name”)).clear();

SeleniumHQ().screenshot(driver); “`

48. Explain how you will log in to any site if it shows any authentication popup for username and password.

In this scenario, you should explain your strategy for logging into a website showing an authentication popup. Not only will you need to explain what you would do, but you will also be able to demonstrate how quick and efficient it is. First, you’d want to ensure that you are logged into the same computer infected with malware or spyware. Then, close any open browser tabs before opening up a new browser tab or window on the same computer. Now type in your URL address (for example, https://www.companywebsite) and hit enter or click Go! Once there, click on login at the top right corner of your screen where it says “Log In” Next, type in your username then password, then hit Enter/Go at the bottom left corner of the page; when done typing your username & password

49. How can you skip a method or a code block in TestNG?

You can use the following syntax:

“`Java

@Test(groups = { “skipped” })

public void testExampleSkipped() { //code } “`

50. Briefly explain what does below code snippet indicates.

This question is ideal for testing your knowledge of the basics. The code indicates that a function named “Foo” has been invoked inside another function named “Bar.” This can happen when you define a nested function using a name starting with an underscore or calling another function within your main program.

It’s also possible to define this type of structure in Java, but instead of using functions, you use classes that contain methods with the same access rights as their enclosing class (in this case, Foo).

Conclusion

To help you prepare for the interview, we have mentioned a list of the top 50 software testing interview questions. This list is incomplete; many more questions could be asked during an interview. However, this list provides a starting point for anyone who wants to learn how to answer these questions correctly. You will be able to use this resource as part of your study process so that when it comes time for an interview in person or remotely via video conference call – you’ll be ready!

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